With the election of Ronald Regan, covert operations in Latin America escalated rapidly. 6 "The influx of American funds," notes Peter Kornbluh, determined "the frequency and destructiveness of contra attachs." 7 In the early 1980s, the Regan Administration increasingly used Honduras as a base for the contra war. The Administration set up a number of military and training facilities--some American, some contra , and some housing Argengine mercenaries--along the border between Nicaragua and Honduras. "[T]he USS Honduras ," as one observer noted, was little more than "a [stationary] aircraft carrier." 8 These strategies seemed to represent both a conscious acceleration of American involvement in the region, and the inertia of past involvements and failures. 9
Some academic journals have codes of ethics that specifically refer to self-plagiarism. For example, the Journal of International Business Studies .  Some professional organizations like the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) have created policies that deal specifically with self-plagiarism.  Other organizations do not make specific reference to self-plagiarism such as the American Political Science Association (APSA). The organization published a code of ethics that describes plagiarism as "...deliberate appropriation of the works of others represented as one's own." It does not make any reference to self-plagiarism. It does say that when a thesis or dissertation is published "in whole or in part", the author is "not ordinarily under an ethical obligation to acknowledge its origins."  The American Society for Public Administration (ASPA) also published a code of ethics that says its members are committed to: "Ensure that others receive credit for their work and contributions," but it makes no reference to self-plagiarism.