However, also if you are working as a postdoc in Germany, a shorter research stay abroad may be beneficial for your postdoctoral project. Funding for short research stays abroad is provided mainly by the DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service), by the DFG (German Research Foundation) as well as by the Fritz-Thyssen-Foundation (travel grants). Postdocs in the humanities are supported by the Max Weber Foundation (Gerald D. Feldman-Travel Grants). Postdocs of the TU Dresden who are members of the Graduate Academy can apply for travel allowances for short research stays abroad (up to three months).
Bavaria, Saxony and Thuringia, three states with conservative governments, filed suit at the German Constitutional Court against the new law replacing the habilitation with the junior professor.  The Court concurred with their argument that the Bundestag (the federal parliament) cannot pass such a law, because the German constitution explicitly states that affairs of education are the sole responsibility of the states and declared the law to be invalid in June 2004. In reaction, a new federal law was passed, giving the states more freedom regarding habilitations and junior professors. The junior professor has since been legally established in all states, but it is still possible—and encouraged—for an academic career in many subjects in Germany to pursue a habilitation.
Criteria for research doctorates vary, but typically require completion of a substantial body of original research, which may be presented as a single thesis or dissertation, or as a portfolio of shorter project reports ( thesis by publication ). The submitted dissertation is assessed by a committee of examiners, and is then typically defended by the candidate during an oral examination ( viva in the UK and India) by the committee. Candidates may also be required to complete graduate-level courses in their field, as well as study research methodology.