After the dissimilated French coronel made its way into English, late 16th century scholars started producing English translations of Italian military treatises. Under the influence of the originals, people started spelling it “colonel.” By the middle of the 17th century, the spelling had standardized to the “l” version, but the “r” pronunciation was still popular (it later lost a syllable, turning kor-o-nel to ker-nel). Both pronunciations were in play for a while, and adding to the confusion was the mistaken idea that “coronel” was etymologically related to “crown”—a colonel was sometimes translated as “crowner” in English. In fact, the root is colonna , Italian for column.
The Portuguese rock started to be noted in 1980 with the release of Ar de Rock by Rui Veloso , which was the first popular Portuguese rock song, other Portuguese bands and singers such Sétima Legião , Rádio Macau , Jafumega, Mão Morta , Taxi , Peste e Sida, were popular to. Before that, Portugal had a vibrant underground progressive rock scene in the 1970s like Tantra, Quarteto 1111 , José Cid and others in 1950 and 1960 rock and roll scene with bands like Os Conchas and Os Sheiks. Among the numerous bands and artists which followed its genesis, are Xutos & Pontapés , GNR , Quinta do Bill , UHF , The Gift and Moonspell .